By Elissa L. Kramer, Jane Ko MD, Fabio Ponzo MD, Karen Mourtzikos MD
Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography: A Disease-Oriented process bargains Radiologists and Nuclear drugs experts an intensive realizing of the medical software of PET-CT—a groundbreaking modality that offers a strong fusion of imaging anatomy and metabolic functionality. Written with a disease-oriented strategy, PET-CT examines realizing, utilizing, and examining PET-CT imaging in medical perform. Co-authored by way of specialists in either puppy and CT imaging, this article serves as an built-in overview of the sensible facets of this new imaging modality whereas supplying entire and evidence-based insurance. This quantity covers all medical entities for which PET-CT can be used in today’s glossy perform. utilizing an built-in disease-oriented technique, PET-CT stories: the diagnostic settings within which PET-CT will end up most useful literature-based facts for software, functions, and boundaries to every affliction built-in dialogue of the CT findings that would undergo at the puppy interpretation and vice versa "next steps" within the scientific review of a sufferer (i.e., extra imaging reviews indicated) Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography additionally encompasses a CD choked with each photo from the ebook. With over 340 excessive answer pictures this makes an ideal addition to either in-depth learn and PowerPoint slide shows.
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Extra info for Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography:: A Disease-Oriented Approach
Attenuation correction factors are simply the inverse of these attenuation factors and are applied to the measured emission projection data either before or during image reconstruction. Contamination of the transmission data with 511-keV emission photons from within the patient can be accounted for, and this method of attenuation correction is extremely accurate, provided the patient does not move between the transmission and emission acquisitions. Although radionuclide transmission sources can be used to provide accurate attenuation correction, they require additional scans that add significantly to the overall duration of the imaging procedure.
Compton scattering is the most likely interaction mechanism for 511-keV photons in tissue, but once a photon has scattered, it emerges with a lower energy, and photoelectric absorption becomes more likely. Attenuation refers to the loss of photons within the body due to a combination of Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption. Even if only one of the annihilation photons is attenuated, the opportunity to measure a coincidence event will be lost and the number of trues recorded by the scanner will, therefore, be underestimated.
Fully 3D reconstructions of this sort can be derived by extending the 2D algorithms described previously to three dimensions. The increased data volume that is involved in reconstructions of this sort gives rise to a large increase in reconstruction times, although these too, are now being routinely processed with 3D iterative algorithms. As noted above, image noise and spatial resolution are a function of the number of iterations used in the iterative reconstruction. However, in many clinical protocols an additional smoothing filter is applied after completion of image reconstruction to further suppress noise.
Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography:: A Disease-Oriented Approach by Elissa L. Kramer, Jane Ko MD, Fabio Ponzo MD, Karen Mourtzikos MD