Origin of the Earth and Moon - download pdf or read online

By A. E. Ringwood (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1461261678

ISBN-13: 9781461261674

ISBN-10: 1461261694

ISBN-13: 9781461261698

Since the start of civilization, the origins of the Earth and Moon were the topics of continuous curiosity, hypothesis, and enquiry. those also are one of the so much difficult of all clinical difficulties. they're, maybe to a distinct measure, interdisciplinary, having attracted the eye of philosophers, astronomers, mathematicians, geologists, chemists, and physicists. a wide and various literature has constructed, some distance past the potential of people to assimilate correctly. hence, so much of these who try to current review-syntheses within the region are likely to mirror the views in their personal specific disciplines. the current author's procedure is that of a geochemist, strongly inspired by way of the elemental phil­ osophy of Harold Urey. while so much astronomical phenomena are managed by means of gravitational and magnetic fields, and via nuclear interactions, Urey (1952) emphasised that the formation of the sunlight procedure happened in a pressure-temperature regime in which the chemical houses of topic have been at the very least as very important as these of gravitational and magnetic fields. This used to be the primary subject matter of his 1952 booklet, "The Planets," which revolutionized our method of this topic. in lots of next papers, Urey strongly emphasised the significance of meteorites in supplying severe facts of chemical stipulations within the primordial sun nebula, and of the chemical fractionation tactics which happened in the course of formation of the terrestrial planets. This technique has been via so much next geochemists and cosmochemists.

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2 A possible exception to this generalization may occur where the low-pressure phase has an exceptionally high intrinsic bulk modulus, as the result of a relatively open structure in which the atoms are linked by extremely strong, directed covalent bonds, as in diamond. This situation does not prevail in the case of closely packed lower mantle silicates. 3 However, the density and seismic velocities of the inner core below a depth of 5154 km are consistent with the interpretation that this region consists of essentially pure nickel-iron (Anderson, 1977).

F. f. ] ROCKS"LT ° ? SU . 9 Mineral assemblages and corresponding zero-pressure densities for a model mantle of pyrolite composition based on the results of static high-pressure, hightemperature experimentation. , 1972; Liu, 1976; Ringwood and Major, 1968), followed by transformation to the perovskite structure (Liu, 1974, 1975). , 1967). Ringwood (1975a) has shown that the above series of phase transformations, discovered in the laboratory and occurring in material possessing the bulk chemical composition of pyrolite, provides a satisfactory explanation of the positions and magnitudes of the seismic discontinuities in the transition zone and also provides an adequate explanation of the density change through this region.

However, in this case also, on the basis of Hofman and Magaritz's e 2 Compatible elements are defined as those possessing ionic radii and charges which permit them to substitute readily in the principal minerals of the mantle. Abundance Patterns of Compatible Elements and Their Significance 31 results, it seems difficult to explain homogenization occurring over scales exceeding about 1 km. Most probably, the effect would be much smaller. The possible role of convection in causing homogeneity was also considered by Hofman and Magaritz.

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Origin of the Earth and Moon by A. E. Ringwood (auth.)

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