By Dawa Norbu
Nationalism in particular political platforms mixed with a theoretical framework that pulls out its common value. Ten case reports from South Asia, the center East, Latin the United States and Europe specialise in neighborhood cultural components.
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Extra resources for Culture and the Politics of Third World Nationalism
The ideal of nationalism meant the nucleus of a nationality based on will (nation de volonte)’ (Kedourie 1970:190). In a later work Elie Kedourie traced the philosophical genesis of self-determination to the Kantian philosophical postulate that man is ‘free when he obeys the laws of morality which he finds within himself, and not in the external world’ (1971:23). A more technical rendering of this ideological definition has recently been achieved: ‘Nationalism is primarily a political principle which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent’ (Gellner 1983:1).
Here we cannot ignore the religious factor in social life if we are to remain faithful to value-neutral research. In such a traditional universe as represented by most parts of Asia, Africa or Latin America, it is primarily cultural symbols, not so much Marxist-Leninist radicalism, that moves lethargic and disorganized peasants into political action. The secret of Third World nationalism resides in this paradox: the politicization of the non-political (namely, culture) but primarily for political ends—the creation of the nation-state, as the most efficacious instrument of defending and promoting socially shared interests.
In short, nationalism cannot be invented by a minority; it has to be passionately felt by the majority under certain conditions. And the majority in the preindustrial age meant peasantry. We must then study the changing historical conditions leading to the formation of nation-states, which give rise to full-throated nationalism. This entails a nation-wide integration of various vital spheres of group life, especially political and economic ones. POLITICAL EVOLUTION AND CONCOMITANT TYPES OF SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS It is tempting to reconstruct a historical schema within which the various stages of proto-nationalism may be placed, but such an attempt may be fraught with the danger of retrospective determinism.
Culture and the Politics of Third World Nationalism by Dawa Norbu