By J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz
This publication, first released in 1979 and out of print in view that 1986, surveys spiritual attitudes mirrored in Latin literature from the past due Republic to the time of Constantine. Liebeschuetz specializes in the advance of the Roman public faith, relatively the relation among Roman faith and morality.
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E. W. 2 R. v. Terminus. 4 G. Wissowa (1895). O. Thulin (1912). 6 G. Radke (1968). Page 8 that the diviners provided very little factual information other than in the field of ritual. 2 In practice, public divination was not so used. 3 In other words he wanted the answer to be either yes or no. 4 Thus the nature of their responses ensured that Roman diviners could rarely be refuted by events. 5 Public divination certainly performed the functions which Livy thought that Roman ritual had performed under Numa.
Taylor (1949), 76 ff. 7 Th. St. (1887), i. 89116. 1 While the assembly was meeting augurs were present watching for signs from the gods. 2 While there is thus an abundance of evidence that the Romans were even obsessively convinced of the need to placate the gods, belief in the gods seems to have had little effect on their conduct. The reader of Latin literature feels that fear of divine displeasure was very rarely a motive when a Roman decided on a course of action whether in a public or a private capacity; nor is there much evidence that a divine command was used as an excuse to justify any individual's behaviour retrospectively.
16. Frequently haruspices predicted civil strife. No doubt this helped to rally the defenders of civil order and excused more vigorous dealings with troublemakers. (Obseq. 29. App. C. i. 71 (322). Plut. Sull. 7. Cic. Div. i. 44 (99); Har. Resp. ); Div. i. ) 5 In the Roman republic, divination was employed within a limited and welldefined area. It was not used to obtain information which could be gained through the senses, or through arts and sciences like music or medicine, or astronomy, or to establish moral judgements, or to lay down principles of conduct, or discover constitutional arrangements.
Continuity and Change in Roman Religion by J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz