By Houben H., Rigassi V., Garnier P.
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Cr = e. Expansion and recompression. If overburden pressure is decreased, soil undergoes volumetric expansion (swell), as shown in figure 3-7. The semilogarithmic, straight-line (this may have to be approximated) slope of the swelling curve is expressed by the swelling index, Cs, as ∆e log p2’ p1’ (3-9) The value of Cr is equal to or slightly smaller than Cs. are associated with High values of Cr/Cs overconsolidated clays containing swelling clay minerals. (Courtesy of T. W. Lambe and R. V. Whitman, Soils Mechanics, 1969, p 320.
Courtesy of T. W. Lambe and R. V. Whitman, Soils Mechanics, 1969, p 320. ) Figure 3-9. Approximate relation between void ratio and effective overburden pressure for clay sediments, as a function of the Atterberg limits. 3-10 TM 5-818-1 / AFM 88-3, Chap. 7 Table 3-2. Estimating Degree of Preconsolidation Method Surface topography Remarks Soil below alluvial valley filling should generally have a preconsolidation stress at least corresponding to elevation of abutments. In wide river valleys with terraces at several elevations, an elevation corresponding to previous surface elevation in the river valley may be several miles distant Geological evidence Ask geologist for estimate of maximum preconsolidation stress.
For all piezometers, seal the top several feet below ground surface around the riser pipe to prevent infiltration of surface water. In granular soils, the riser pipe is normally about 1 1/4-inches inside diameter and generally made of plastic. In cohesive soils, a Casa- (Courtesy of L Bjerrum, "Embankment on Soft Ground, " Proceedings, Conference on Performance of Earth and EarthSupported Structures. Purdue University. , Vol2, 1975. ) Figure 4-3. Correction factor for vane strength. 4-7 TM 5-818-1 / AFM 88-3, Chap.
Compressed Earth Blocks. Production Equipment by Houben H., Rigassi V., Garnier P.