By B. Ganananda Nanayakkara
Color Atlas of Human Anatomy - Head and Neck is designed to supply an knowing of the human head and neck zone for undergraduate and publish graduate scholars in medication and Allied healthiness Sciences. it's a functional consultant within the dissection theater to spread the location and kinfolk of the buildings of the pinnacle and neck. regardless of many Anatomical Atlases at present to be had, there a necessity for an Atlas which compliments the Cunnighams handbook of useful Anatomy, that is greatly approved world wide as a customary anatomy textual content. This Atlas used to be conceived with the purpose of pleasant that desire. color Atlas of Human Anatomy - Head and Neck follows the Cunninghams guide of sensible Anatomy (Volume 3). It contains sequential images taken at a number of levels of dissection of the top and neck sector. as a result the images let facet via aspect comparability with anatomical constructions encountered through the dissections. during this method, we are hoping to bridge the space among description of the textual content booklet and what scholars see within the cadavers. All images are thoroughly classified for the convenience of scholars comprehension and id of salient anatomical positive factors on dissected specimens. Specimens are classified permitting scholars to hold out self-testing in their wisdom.
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Branches of thoracic aorta (T5–T12) – oesophageal a. (SS middle third of oesophagus) – paired bronchial a. (two on the LHS, one on the RHS) – post. intercostal a. (SS third to eleventh ICS) – subcostal a. g. g. g. g. pancreatic cancer, lung cancer) – amniotic ﬂuid embolism – snakebite • Symptoms: – peripheral gangrene – haemorrhage • Investigations: – blood ﬁlm analysis (fragmented red blood cells) – prothrombin time (prolonged) – blood tests (thrombocytopenia) – raised levels of D-dimers • Management: – transfusions of platelets and red blood cells Thrombocytopenia = fall in blood platelet count 34 ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS IN ANATOMY AND PATHOLOGY • Symptoms: – menorrhagia – epistaxis – skin bruising – purpuric rash • Management: platelet transfusion (a) Reduction in platelet production: – hypoplastic anaemia – megaloblastic anaemia – myeloma – leukaemia – alcohol – bone-marrow carcinoma – drug induced (b) Increased destruction of platelets: – blood loss – drug induced – disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) – thrombocytopenic purpura – septicaemia – SLE (c) Sequestration of platelets: – hypersplenism (d) Dilution effect: – massive blood transfusion Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) • Mostly originate from B cells • Pathological characteristic: Reed–Sternberg cells (neoplastic giant cells) • Symptoms: – fever – painless lymphadenopathy – pruritus • Signs: – splenomegaly – hepatomegaly • Investigations: – blood tests (raised ESR) – lymph node ﬁne-needle aspiration/biopsy – CXR (mediastinal widening) – CT scan • Management: – chemotherapy – radiotherapy CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 35 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) • Mostly originate from B cells • Commonly involve other organs • Symptoms: – lymphadenopathy – fever – weight loss • Investigations: – blood tests (raised ESR) – bone-marrow aspiration – lymph node biopsy – CXR – CT scan (staging) • Management: – chemotherapy – radiotherapy Hypertension (HT) (BP = CO x TPR) • Risk factors: – diabetes mellitus – smoking – dietary (too much sodium and too little potassium) – genetic predisposition – stress Classification based on cause (a) Primary HT (most common) • Idiopathic (b) Secondary HT (i) renal D – most common cause – renal a.
Ant. intercostal a. (SS ant. intercostal spaces 1–6) – ant. perforating a. (SS skin of thoracic wall + medial breast) – musculophrenic a. (SS diaphragm + ant. intercostal spaces 7–10) – sup. epigastric a. (anastomoses with inf. ) • Arterial supply – long thoracic and thoracoacromial branches from axillary a. (lateral) – vessels from internal thoracic a. (medial) – second to fourth intercostal arteries (perforating branches) • Venous drainage – axillary v. – internal thoracic v. – post. intercostal veins → azygos system • Lymphatic drainage – 75% drains into axillary lymph nodes (mainly ant.
Mesenteric a. : post. : styloid process • Structures within parotid gland (from superficial to deep) – facial n. – superﬁcial temporal v. + maxillary v. → retromandibular v. – ext. carotid a. → superﬁcial temporal a. + maxillary a. • Parotid duct – arises from ant. parotid gland – pierces buccinator – opens into oral cavity opposite U. : trachea, LA, R. pulmonary a. : vertebral column, thoracic aorta, thoracic duct (iii) RHS: azygos vein, thoracic duct (iv) LHS: descending aorta – cricopharyngeus muscle = upper oesophageal sphincter (narrowest point in whole GI tract) – diaphragm = lower oesophageal sphincter – points of constriction (where caustic substances may be trapped) = cricopharyngeal constriction, aortic constriction (arch of aorta) and diaphragmatic constriction – divided into three parts: (a) cervical part: – striated m.
Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy by B. Ganananda Nanayakkara