New PDF release: Cliffs Quick Review Anatomy and Physiology (Cliffs quick

By Phillip E. Pack

ISBN-10: 0822053012

ISBN-13: 9780822053019

A entire evaluation consultant that will help you refresh your learn. This consultant is very necessary for midterms and ultimate checks, condensing a semester's worthy of data into one concise quantity.

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Chromosomes nuclear envelope nucleolus chromatin centrioles plasma membrane spindle fibers interphase prophase daughter cell at next prophase metaphase cleavage furrow sister chromatids daughter cells at interphase telophase anaphase Mitosis ■ Anaphase begins after the chromosomes are separated into chro- matids. During anaphase, the microtubules connected to the chromatids (now chromosomes) shorten, effectively pulling the chromosomes to opposite poles. Overlapping microtubules originating from opposite centrosomes but not attached to chromosomes interact to push the poles farther apart.

The genetic code is a table of information that provides “decoding” for each codon—that is, it identifies the amino acid specified by each of the possible 64 codon combinations. For example, the codon composed of the three nucleotides cytosine-guanine-adenine (CGA) codes for the amino acid arginine. ■ Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short RNA molecule (consisting of about 80 nucleotides) that is used for transporting amino acids to their proper places on the mRNA template. Interactions among various parts of the tRNA molecule result in base-pairings between nucleotides, folding the tRNA in such a way that it forms a threedimensional molecule.

Again, this is exactly what happens in mitosis—except now there is only half the number of chromosomes. ■ In telophase II, the nuclear envelope reappears at each pole and cytokinesis occurs. The end result of meiosis is four haploid cells. Each cell contains half the number of chromosomes, and each chromosome consists of only one chromatid. Meiosis ends with four haploid daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes (one chromosome from each homologous pair). These are gametes—that is, eggs and sperm.

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Cliffs Quick Review Anatomy and Physiology (Cliffs quick review) by Phillip E. Pack


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