By Richard H. Bennett, Matthew H. Hulbert (auth.)
Plan of evaluation This overview of clay microstructure is aimed toward the various crew of pros who percentage an curiosity within the homes of fine-grained minerals in sediments. over the past a number of a long time, contributors of this staff have integrated geologists, soil scientists, soil engineers, engineering geologists, and ceramics scientists. extra lately, it has incorporated major numbers of marine geologists and different engineers. all of the disciplines has constructed designated thoughts for investigating houses of clay sediments that experience confirmed to be fruitful in answering questions of crucial curiosity. wisdom of clay microstructure-the textile of a sediment and the physico chemical interactions among its components-is primary to these kind of disciplines (Mitchell 1956; Lambe 1958a; Foster and De 1971). Clay cloth refers back to the spatial distribution, orientations, and particle-to-particle kinfolk of the forged debris (generally these below three. nine /Lm in dimension) of sediment. Physico-chemical interac tions are expressions of the forces among the debris. during this assessment, we hint the ancient improvement of lower than status clay microstructure via discussing key medical papers released prior to 1986 on physico-chemical interactions in fantastic grained sediments and on clay textile. because the improvement follows an elaborate course, the present view of clay microstructure is summarized. This precis features a dialogue of the current kingdom of information, the observations made thus far, and the proof which are now established.
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According to Michaels, the initial particle geometry in clay-water systems is determined by the balance of electrostatic repulsion between faces and attraction between edges and faces (Michaels 1961). Electrostatic interactions among the particles are reduced in the dry clay, so application of stress sufficient to break the contacts causes the structure to collapse; the resulting formation of domains (or packets) reduces the contact area. Aylmore and Quirk (1960) concluded that extensive domain formation occurs on drying without remolding, and it persists on rewetting.
Clay deposited in fresh water, however, remains dispersed and settles with a slower velocity than does silt, and it forms a much greater degree of parallel particle orientation (oriented fabric). This occurs because the particles must overcome an energy barrier to aggregate, and their potential energy is minimized (maximum van der Waal's attraction) when platey particles approach face to face. Once particles have settled to the sediment-water interface, they tend to reorient to the minimum energy position, that is, the parallel particle orientation.
He showed also that replacement of sodium ions by potassium ions in flocculated montmorillonite reduces the thickness of the minerals grains by 18%. He stated that the points of contact between the minerals remain unchanged, but their bonds increase in strength. Martin (1962) and Low (1961) presented reviews of the interaction between clays and water. Both concluded that water in the vicinity of clay surfaces differs in its properties from bulk water. Martin (1962) suggested that the adsorbed water behaves as a twodimensional fluid, a material that will resist appreciable normal stress but will shear perhaps even more easily than bulk water.
Clay Microstructure by Richard H. Bennett, Matthew H. Hulbert (auth.)