By Robert B. Gennis
New textbooks in any respect degrees of chemistry look with nice regularity. a few fields like uncomplicated biochemistry, natural response mechanisms, and chemical thermody namics are good represented via many fantastic texts, and new or revised variations are released sufficiently usually to take care of with growth in study. in spite of the fact that, a few parts of chemistry, in particular lots of these taught on the graduate point, be afflicted by a true loss of updated textbooks. the main critical wishes happen in fields which are quickly altering. Textbooks in those topics frequently need to be written via scientists truly all in favour of the learn that's advancing the sector. it isn't frequently effortless to cajole such members to set time apart to assist unfold the data they've got collected. Our objective, during this sequence, is to pinpoint components of chemistry the place contemporary development has outpaced what's coated in any to be had textbooks, after which search out and convince specialists in those fields to supply rather concise yet instructive introductions to their fields. those may still serve the desires of 1 semester or one sector graduate classes in chemistry and biochemistry. now and again, the supply of texts in lively learn parts might actually help stimulate the construction of recent courses.
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Additional resources for Biomembranes: Molecular Structure and Function
Free fatty acids and lysophospholipids are usually present, but at very low levels. One possible exception is the chromaffin granule membrane, where an extraordinarily high amount of free fatty acids has been reported (668). Monoacyl- and diacylglycerides are also minor components. Diacylglyceride serves an important function as a second 32 1: Introduction: The Structure and Composition of Biomembranes messenger in signal transduction in a mechanism by which a variety of biologically active substances can activate cellular responses.
Archaebacteria also contain similar lipids, but as with the glycerophosphoJipids, the stereoconfigurations are reversed, with the glycosidic linkage at the sn-l position (307,888). Glycoglycerolipids are rare in animals. 1: Introduction: The Structure and Composition of Biomembranes 30 A. Structu res of Some Glycosphingolipids Glucocerebroside Cer - Glc Ceramide lactoside Cer - Glc- Gal Globoside Cer-Glc-Gal-Gal-GaINAc Sulfatide Cer - Gal(3}-OSO; Galactocerebroside Cer - Gal Gangliosides GM3 Cer - Glc- Gal - NeuNAc GM2 Cer - Glc- Gal- GaINAc I NeuNAc GM, Cer- Glc- Gal - GaINAc -Gal I NeuNAc B.
However, the reasons for the heterogeneity are not known, although lipids are increasingly being recognized as active participants in membrane-associated processes. Several factors can be considered. 1. Minimally the lipid mixture must form a stable bilayer in which the proteins can function. This is discussed in the next chapter. 2. Some lipids may be required because their shapes favor packing configurations that may be necessary to stabilize regions of high curvature, junctions between membranes, or optimal interactions with specific proteins (see 303, 267, 272).
Biomembranes: Molecular Structure and Function by Robert B. Gennis