By Karl F. Nordstrom
This quantity discusses the function of people in remodeling the coastal panorama. The ebook info the numerous methods seashores and dunes are eradicated, altered and changed and the diversities among traditional landforms and the human artefacts that exchange them. Emphasis is put on the significance of maintaining evidently functioning shores and dunes in ways in which in attaining ordinary values whereas accommodating improvement and use. the problems handled during this e-book should be of curiosity to training coastal engineers and learn scientists, in addition to to planners and executives of coastal assets in any respect degrees of presidency. it will likely be of specific worth to investigators making plans for the way forward for coastal improvement below sped up sea point upward push. The e-book can be valuable as a reference textual content for graduate and complicated undergraduate classes in geography, geology, ecology and different disciplines facing the interplay among technology, know-how and society.
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Additional resources for Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts
Coastal defense structures have been built along 60 percent of the coast of northeastern Italy from Grado to Rimini, including 56 km of groins and breakwaters and 55 km of seawalls (Bondesan etal. 1995). The coastline of Japan has been drastically altered by massive engineering projects (Nagao 1991; Watanabe and Horikawa 1983). As many as 10 043 groins were reported in Japan by the early 1980s, along with 5579 km of seawalls and 2838 km of dikes (Toyoshima 1982). The total length of protection structures along the coast of Japan is over 10000 km (Nagao 1991).
The shoreline of Kaike, Japan has undergone the following stages: (1) a series of groins built from 1947 to 1955; (2) a seawall built from 1955 to 1961; (3) emplacement of concrete blocks in front of the seawall in the 1960s; and (4) a detached breakwater system built seaward of all of these structures from 1971 to 1981 (Toyoshima 1982). In other cases, a similar type of structure is used, but its dimensions and cost increase through time as each structure fails (Pilkey 1981; Kana 1983; Reynolds 1987).
1990). Grading of dunes to facilitate construction removes stabilizing vegetation and can initially increase sediment mobility and sand transport rates (Gusmão et al. 1993), but this mobility is short-lived. Subsequent replacement of the natural surface by a cultural one reduces the area of the original landforms, eliminates its value as habitat or source of sediment or seeds for adjacent natural environments, and truncates previous natural environments, reducing their size, mobility, and potential for growth or expansion.
Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts by Karl F. Nordstrom