By T. Edward Damer
More and more collage classes and courses require a serious considering component--and contain assignments intended to degree your severe considering abilities. ATTACKING defective REASONING: a pragmatic consultant TO FALLACY-FREE ARGUMENTS, 6th version, may also help brush up on those skills--and find out how to improve the logical, persuasive arguments you wish now and all through your profession. this beneficial guide addresses greater than 60 universal fallacies of good judgment with the aid of over two hundred memorable examples. It offers motives and advice for heading off unsuitable pondering, and is a perfect source whilst writing papers, essays, or arguments.
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Extra resources for Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments
Most of us are familiar with the case of the attorney who convinces an initially skeptical judge that a seemingly irrelevant question or piece of testimony is relevant by introducing other evidence or testimony. An important ﬁrst step in the reconstruction of another’s argument, then, is to check it for any obvious irrelevancies. In the context of informal discussion, we usually encounter quite a number of sometimes colorful yet irrelevant pieces of material. Most of these features are not intended to be a part of the argument and can therefore be safely ignored.
One will also discover that a premise, and sometimes even a conclusion, may be unstated but understood from the context. When putting an argument into standard form, make explicit any of these implicit parts. When supplying these unstated but intended parts, it is helpful to enclose them in brackets so that it will be clear that the supplied parts did not explicitly appear in the original argument. 18 chapter 2 When reconstructing an argument, one will often encounter what is called a subargument, wherein a subpremise is used to support one of the premises of the main argument.
God hates homosexual behavior. He does not, of course, hate the homosexual. God loves all human beings. After all, he created them. But homosexual behavior is a sin, and God punishes the sinner. The scientists can do all the research they want, but they are not going to ﬁnd the cure for AIDS by looking in the laboratory. what is an argument? 19 A reconstruction of this argument might look like this: Since God disapproves of homosexual behavior, (premise) which is a conclusion supported by passages in the Bible, (subpremise) and God punishes those who commit acts that he disapproves of, (premise) [which is also supported by passages in the Bible,] (implicit subpremise) [and AIDS is clearly associated with homosexual activity,] (implicit premise) and since science has not found any cure for the disease and will not ﬁnd it, (rebuttal premise) Therefore, AIDS is a form of divine punishment for homosexual activity.
Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments by T. Edward Damer