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By P. Rao

ISBN-10: 9535105310

ISBN-13: 9789535105312

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Extra resources for Atrial Septal Defect

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Similarly, the morning-after pills are also safe and effective for women with heart disease. There are injectable forms of long-acting contraceptives available. From cardiac point of view, permanent methods of Pregnancy Issues in Women with Atrial Septal Defect 27 sterilization such as tubal ligation or vasectomy for the partner are unwarranted in cases with ASD. 9. Conclusion Pregnancy in women without heart disease has its own risks. Women with ASD who are asymptomatic, NYHA Class I or II are likely to have uneventful pregnancy.

Conclusion Pregnancy in women without heart disease has its own risks. Women with ASD who are asymptomatic, NYHA Class I or II are likely to have uneventful pregnancy. The ASD may be closed either surgically or by transcatheter technique if found suitable. For high risk patients, treatment of ASD during pregnancy may be undertaken. Second trimester is considered suitable for either transcatheter or surgical repair of ASD. Radiation dose is minimized by using intracardiac echocardiogram and modifications of the catheter procedure.

Loffredo C, Wilson P, Ferencz C. (2001). Maternal diabetes: An independent risk factor for major cardiovascular malformations with increased mortality of affected infants. Teratology 64:98-106. Mastroiacovo P, Castilla E, Arpino C, et al. (1999). Congenital malformations in twins: an international study. Am J Med Genet 83:117-124. Mendez HM and Opitz JM (1985). Noonan syndrome: a review. Am J Med Genet 21: 493-496. Mone S, Tillman M, Miller T, et al. (2004). Effects of environmental exposures on the cardiovascular system: prenatal period through adolescence.

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Atrial Septal Defect by P. Rao

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