By Eduard Pernkopf, Helmut Ferner, Henry Monsen
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Additional info for Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy, Vol. 2: Thorax, Abdomen and Extremities (v. 2)
620-622 The X and Yboxes are separated from each other by 18-20 bp and are necessary for both constitutive and cytokine-mediated expression. S49 ,55G,623,624 The Y box is a 10 bp motif located 40-90 bp 5' of the transcription start site and contains a reverse CCAAT sequence, The X box is located further upstream and consists of two subunits, Xl> which is located at position 108 to -95, and X 2 , located at position -96 to -90. Depending on the gene, the X2 box resembles either a cAMP responsive element (CRE) or a TPA responsive element (TRE).
It is a homolog of the Drosophila female sterile homeotic (fsh) gene and seems widely expressed. It has also been mapped to the mouse and Xenopus class II regions. 592-593 Its exact tissue specificity and properties have not yet been assigned. 594 ,592 All of the other genes are expressed in particular tissues and most of them respond to induction with y_ interferon. 563,570,595-598 Genes involved in processing antigens for the MHC class I antigen presentation, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter loci and two proteasome components also map to the class II region.
The organization of DNA elements regulating avian class II B genes differs from 31 that in mammalian species, though the S, X and Yboxes are well conserved in sequence and location. 821 The MHC class II DB genes of the rednecked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus),822 belong to new families that are not orthologous to eutherian DB families. This indicates the possibility that the DB genes of marsupials have an ancestor different from the DB gene ancestors of mammals. In the last few years, extensive studies have been undertaken on fish MHC.
Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy, Vol. 2: Thorax, Abdomen and Extremities (v. 2) by Eduard Pernkopf, Helmut Ferner, Henry Monsen