By Julie Bienertova-vasku
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Additional resources for Appetite: Regulation, Use of Stimulants and Cultural and Biological Influences
It is possible that artificial light masks any seasonal variation. Glucocorticoid concentration is lower during the spring and summer and higher during the autumn and winter; this is associated with enhanced stress reactions during the winter months. , 2013). However, the effect of stressors on human appetite depends on interindividual differences and food type. , 2013). Ever since the industrial revolution, which resulted in similar work schedules being observed throughout the year, and the introduction of artificial light, the seasonal variation of illumination is relatively lower than in pre-industrial times and light is a much weaker zeitgeber (Hofman 2004).
Ital. , 142 (4), 429-67. , and MacNairn, I. A. , 20 (4), 65-73. Meijer, J. , et al. (2010), 'Daily and seasonal adaptation of the circadian clock requires plasticity of the SCN neuronal network', Eur. J. , 32 (12), 2143-51. , et al. (2005), 'Feeding cues alter clock gene oscillations and photic responses in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of mice exposed to a light/dark cycle', J. , 25 (6), 1514-22. , et al.
Initial theories supposed that switching between REM and NREM sleep is driven by monoaminergic (NREM-promoting) and cholinergic (REM-promoting) activity. Current evidence supports a model which attributes REM sleep generation to interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons in the pontine area, resulting in cortical activation and other REMrelated phenomena. Monoaminergic neurons are considered to ―switch off‖ REM sleep, while GABA-ergic neurons may have both inhibitory and activating (―inhibitor‘s inhibitor‖) properties.
Appetite: Regulation, Use of Stimulants and Cultural and Biological Influences by Julie Bienertova-vasku