By Mark N. Cohen, Gillian M. M. Crane-Kramer
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This compilation of thirteen papers through students from eire, England and Denmark, contemplate the level and nature of Viking impact in eire. Created in shut organization with exhibitions held on the nationwide Musem of eire in 1998-99 and on the nationwide send Museum in Roskilde in 2001, the papers talk about facets of faith, paintings, literature and placenames, cities and society, drawing jointly techniques at the trade of tradition and concepts in Viking Age eire and the level to which present identities have been maintained, misplaced or assimilated.
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Additional resources for Ancient Health: Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic Intensification
Naïve reconstructions of life expectancy have largely been abandoned—as a result of criticisms by many scholars, although more tempered reconstructions of paleodemographic parameters are still attempted. Isotope studies now help reconstruct diet, geographical variation, and geographic origin and migration of individuals. Trace-element studies, now widely criticized, play a much smaller role. DNA studies and work in immunology now enable us to identify specific diseases in prehistoric skeletons: cholera, tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, bubonic plague, malaria, Chagas disease, influenza, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis (Greenblatt and Spigelman 2003).
Panhandle of Florida, there is a general trend toward less negative δ13C values and some reduction in δ15N values, representing the adoption of maize and a decline in marine foods. After contact, the picture changes. In the Guale missions of coastal Georgia (and, later, northern Florida), the appearance of less negative δ13C values and less positive δ15N values compared to earlier populations in the same region suggests an increased commitment to maize and a further decline in the use of marine foods.
Pietrusewsky and colleagues (1997) saw possible improvement in health through time on the Mariana Islands. Fairgrieve and Molto (2000) found an improvement in health from pre-Roman to Roman periods at the Dakleh Oasis in Egypt. Lovell and Whyte (1999) found a decline in hypoplasia rates following the Old Kingdom in Egypt that they relate to known very bad climate conditions in Egypt during the Old Kingdom. Yamamoto (1992) reported a mixed trend in hypoplasia from the Jomon through the Edo period in Japan.
Ancient Health: Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic Intensification by Mark N. Cohen, Gillian M. M. Crane-Kramer