New PDF release: An Introduction to Space Weather

By Mark Moldwin

ISBN-10: 0511394527

ISBN-13: 9780511394522

ISBN-10: 0521861497

ISBN-13: 9780521861496

Considered one of first undergraduate textbooks on house climate designed for introductory area physics classes.

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Additional info for An Introduction to Space Weather

Example text

In the process, energy is liberated; some of this energy eventually makes its way to the surface and propagates out into space as electromagnetic radiation. Because of the high temperatures on and within the Sun, the gas is ionized. An atom or molecule becomes ionized when an electron is knocked out, giving the atom a net positive electric charge. The charged particles feel the force of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, moving charged particles can create an electrical current, which in turn gives rise to a magnetic field.

Example: the radius of the Sun is 7 × 105 km. The radius of Earth is approximately 7 × 103 km. How many Earths could fit across the face of the Sun? Answer: the answer can be found by calculating how many Earth radii it takes to equal one solar radius. x × 1rE = 1Rsolar x= 7 1Rsolar 7 × 105 km = × 105−3 = 1 × 102 . = 3 1rE 7 × 10 km 7 Therefore, 102 or 100 Earths can fit across the Sun. 1 Have you used a satellite recently? Think about how you have used information from a satellite or gained access to information using a satellite and write a short paragraph describing this use.

A natural question that had puzzled scientists until the twentieth century is, where does the Sun get this energy? One of the biggest contributions to our understanding of the Sun’s energy source was Einstein’s4 famous equation, E = mc2 , which tells us that energy equals mass times the speed of light squared or, physically, that mass and energy are intimately related. The speed of light is itself a very large number – 3 × 108 m s−1 –, and this number squared is huge. Therefore, even a small amount of mass is equivalent to a large amount of energy.

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An Introduction to Space Weather by Mark Moldwin

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