By Mir Bahmanyar
Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and bolstered many ordinary cave platforms to take advantage of as offer bases and protecting positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda extra constructed those positions through the Nineteen Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites akin to Tora Bora ("Black Dust," a sequence of person caves) and Zhawar Kili (a huge complicated in japanese Afghanistan) have featured in information headlines world wide. This identify offers a close research and visible documentation of those caves and underground structures. It additionally discusses the Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.
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In the steppe environment, failure to show common courtesy to a stranger could easily result in danger or even death for the shunned individual. In order to retain his credibility and legitimacy as ruler with supreme power in a pastoral polity, the ruler had to perform his own duties as host with exemplary flair and perfection. In an Ottoman context, the scale and lavishness of the feasting associated with public celebrations varied according to circumstance and from as little as seven days for a royal birth or a victory celebration to 40 or more, to mark the rite of passage of a prince of the royal line, from childhood to adulthood, and his closer proximity to the prerogatives and duties of host in his own right, as future heir and successor to the throne.
48 In later phases of Ottoman rule the appeal to the gratitude, loyalty and continuing support of both burghers and agriculturalists in the Balkan lands was tenaciously, insistently and consistently couched in the very same terms. The consistency, in both form and content, of Ottoman political rhetoric in the high imperial era can be seen, for example, in the case of the appeal to the townspeople of Sopron (Oldenburg), situated at a strategically sensitive point on the Hungarian–Austrian border, an appeal issued by the grand vizier and commander of the Ottoman invasionary army as it passed by Sopron in July 1683, en route to Vienna.
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Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 by Mir Bahmanyar