By Kul B. Rai
Affirmative motion and the collage is the one full-length research to envision the impression of affirmative motion on all larger schooling hiring practices. Drawing on data supplied by way of the equivalent Employment chance fee and the U.S. division of Education’s nationwide heart for schooling information, the authors summarize, tune, and overview adjustments within the gender and ethnic make-up of educational and nonacademic staff at inner most and public faculties and universities from the past due Seventies during the mid-1990s. Separate chapters check alterations in employment possibilities for white girls, blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and local americans. The authors examine the level to which a two-tier employment procedure exists. In this type of process minorities and ladies usually tend to make their maximum earnings in non-elite positions instead of in college and administrative positions. The authors additionally study variations in hiring practices among private and non-private schools and universities.
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The penalty could also extend to the debarment of the offending contractor from future government grants or work. It is often argued that President Kennedy’s executive order merely reiterated the principle of nondiscrimination in employment and had a race- and colorneutral character. 20 It is true that minorities were not mentioned as the target groups of the executive order, and that women were clearly excluded from the purview of the government’s nondiscrimination policy. Preferential treatment for minorities or women was perhaps not even implied in the order.
28 Color blindness in employment and other areas was also a major theme in the statements of white as well as black civil rights leaders of that time. In an argument before the Supreme Court in Anderson v. Martin, Jack Greenberg, then director counsel of the naacp Legal Defense Fund, said: “The state has a duty under the Fifteenth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment to be color blind and not to act so as to encourage racial discrimination . . ”29 Such statements later provided fuel for the arguments opposing affirmative action, since a form of quota system ignoring color blindness did indeed develop in the 1970s and 1980s.
Hispanics are more likely to be employed in the private sector rather than in the public sector. However, they are more successful in holding managerial and professional positions in the federal government and in state and local governments than in the private sector. In addition, their salaries at the state and local level are in many cases equal to or higher than those of white males. Neverthe- Inequality and Representation 25 less, the past history of discrimination in and outside of government has meant fewer opportunities for Hispanics.
Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Higher Education Employment by Kul B. Rai