# Download PDF by Yasui Y.: A statistical method for the estimation of window-period

By Yasui Y.

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Extra resources for A statistical method for the estimation of window-period risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV in dono

Example text

Such a randomized block design is advantageous when the level of responses is very different between patients, but within-patient variability relatively small. If the subjects are properly randomized within the blocks, data analysis techniques, such as analysis of variance, are able to separate the variability due to the different blocking factors, resulting in a decreased experimental error. 3 Replication In analogy to biological and technical variation, we can specify biological and technical replication.

Human behaviour is inﬂuenced by what we know and what we believe. In research there is a particular risk of expectations inﬂuencing ﬁndings, most obviously when there is some subjectivity in the assessment, leading to biased results. Blinding is used to try to eliminate such bias. Blinding is particularly important when the response criteria are subjective as it is in the assessment of pain. Double-blinding usually refers to keeping patients, those involved with their management such as nurses and study monitors, and those collecting and analyzing clinical data unaware of the assigned treatment, so that they should not be inﬂuenced by that knowledge (Day and Altman 2000).

In a toxicology study, vehicle treated animals may all be sacriﬁced ﬁrst, followed by the low, medium and high dose group animals sequentially in order to avoid drug contamination of histopathological tissue samples. However, due to considerable time differences between last dosing and tissue harvest the tissue exposure to the drug may be different, and in consequence, mRNA response may change due to this systematic error in sample collection. Another sample collection bias refers to the time of food intake in relation to specimen collection which should be blocked for or, if blocking is impossible, should be randomized.