By Fa Hien, James Legge
The current paintings involves 3 components: the interpretation of Fa-hien's Narrative of his Travels; copious Notes; and the chinese language textual content of a replica from Japan.
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Extra info for A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms
27 However, under the Qing policy of ‘designated official ports’ (zhengkou), which restricted trade to between Luermen in Fucheng and Xiamen in Fujian, merchants coming to Taiwan were mostly from Zhangzhou and Quanzhou because they were near Xiamen. 28 Hence, they pooled financial resources to build huiguan in important port cities of central China. 29 In other words, even those traders from Fujian who originally did business in Taiwan and mainland China, who gradually became Taiwanese merchants, and who by the end of seventeenth century joined in the north coastal trade with other traders from Fujian30 still did not found jiao.
Every tojung had the privilege of monopoly until the enactment of commercial liberalization (Shinhae t’onggong) in 1791. Immediately after the enactment, only yug jubijŏn had this privilege, which was finally terminated by the Kabo Reform in 1894. With such a privilege, called kŭmnanjŏnkwŏn, tojung could exclude any merchant who wanted to deal in the same commodities in the vicinity of Seoul. 32 Tojung officials conducted the business of the guild at the office. The name of each guild office was distinguished with a prefix of the guild name.
However, they were only listed on steles in Taiwan, along with the names of individual firms. Their traces are rarely seen in other contexts. This might be due to the fact that Fucheng merchants traded only with these three places. Whether there were merchant organizations established in these places requires further verification. The evolution of the two types of jiao, which could be divided into those that operated in the local Taiwan market and those that dealt in external trade, merits further explanation.
A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms by Fa Hien, James Legge