By John Bryan Holds MD
Information the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the assessment and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present details on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and disturbing stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key points of orbital, eyelid and facial surgical procedure. comprises various new colour photos. significant revision 2011-2012.
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
See BCSC Section 4, Ophthalmic Pathology and Int raoClllar TUlI1ors, for more exten sive discussion of pathology. Laboratory Studies Screening for abno rmal thyroid function com monly includes T" T" and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) tests. Results of these serum tests are abnormal in 90% of patients with TED. However, if thyrOid disease is strongly suspected and these results are normal, ad,:fitional endocrine studies, including studies of th yroid -stimulating immunoglobulins or TSH-receptor antibodies, can be considered.
Re· sponse to an ti bio tics may also be delayed, and surgical intervent ion to excise devitalized tissue may be necessa ry to clear an infect ion . Im ag in g studies sho uld be perform ed to rul e out underl yin g sinusitis if no di rect in oculation site is identified. If the patient does not respond within a day to oral ant ibiotics o r if o rbital invo lvement becomes ev iden t, pro mpt hosp it al admiss io n, CT, and IV ant ibiotics are usually ind icated. Surgica l drai nage may be necessary if preseptal cellulitis progresses to a locali zed ab· scess.
It occurs when the primary optic vesicle fails to grow out from the cerebral vesicle at the 2-mm stage of embryonic development. Secondary anophthalmia is rare and lethal and results from a gross abnormality in the anterior neural tube. Consecutive anophthalmia presumably results fro m a secondary degeneration of the optic vesicle. Because orbital development is dependent on the size and growth of the globe, anophthalmic orbits are small, with hypoplastic eyelids and orbital adnexal structures.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by John Bryan Holds MD